Improving nutritional, environmental and economic conditions in Maputo’s informal settlements through Improved Cooking Stoves

Place: mozambique, Africa
Sustainable management of natural resources Sustainable management of natural resources
Total Budget: € 535.000,00 | Period: From December 2013 To


The initiative has focused on the nutritional, economic and environmental enhancement of most vulnerable households living in  Maputo’ s  informal settlements of Chamanculo C and Xipamanine (Mozambique) through a sustainable market of Improved Cooking Stoves (ICSs).
Health and social conditions of local poor households have now become better; it is particularly true for women because they spend a lot of time running households.Improved Cooking Stoves has given them the possibility to reduce charcoal consumption, generating savings and to have an healthier food treatment and safer domestic conditions.
Unemployed youth have had advantages as well, through a stable income deriving from activities of promotion and distribution of the stoves.
Other main benefits are: emissions reduction derived from more efficient use of charcoal for cooking purpose, reduced consumption of biomass, economic savings, accessible stoves price and creation of a community fund.


AVSI Foundation, Milano - Italy

Lead applicant

Humanitarian cooperation in low income Countries. Main AVSI concerns are: nutrition, health care, agricultural development;

KHANDLELO - Mozambique

Initiative partner

Human and professional education of youth through different activities. Education: school mentoring and support activities to families; educators give support to families and school teachers. Cultural activities: craftsmanship, theatre, paintings, dancing. Health care: nutritional program, medical assistance, personal and domestic hygiene, main diseases prevention (malaria, cholera,). Sport and recreational activities: football matches

Maputo City Council - Mozambique

Initiative partner

Maputo City Council has direct responsibility for the City's services. Council also indirectly oversees other major services delivered through its agencies and corporations, such as the Policia de Transito. The role of Council as set out ias follow: - to represent the public and to consider the well-being and interests of the City - to develop and evaluate the policies and programs of the City - to determine which services the City provides - to ensure that administrative policies, practices and procedures and controllership policies, practices and procedures are in place to implement the decisions of Council - to ensure the accountability and transparency of the operations of the City, including the activities of the senior management of the City - to maintain the financial integrity of the City and - to carry out the duties of Council under any Act

CarbonSinkGroup s.r.l. - Italy

Initiative partner

Carbon Sink Group S.r.l. is a specialized consultancy company dealing with the environmental preservation and management. Thanks to the recognition as Academic Spin-Off by the Florence University (Italy) and the professional background of its staff, CarbonSink is focused on projects aimed to the reduction and offsetting of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions in the atmosphere. CarbonSink’s main consulting services: -Project planning and development for initiatives, like energy efficiency and forestry projects, able to issue certified carbon credits eligible on both regulated and voluntary markets -Carbon footprint and offsetting analysis according to main international standards -Design and development of PES (Payment for Ecosystem Services) Mechanisms -Design and development of innovative market-based solution: advisory services to public and private sector entities as well as multi-lateral agencies.

GIZ Energizing Development Program - Germany

Initiative partner

EnDev is an impact-oriented initiative between Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Australia, the United Kingdom and Switzerland that promotes the supply of modern energy technologies to households and small-scale businesses. The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) acts as lead agency for the implementation of the Energising Development Programme. EnDev supports people to get access to energy services in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Since 2005 EnDev has helped -11 million people obtain sustainable energy services in Africa, Asia and Latin America; -more than 11,000 social institutions and 24,000 small enterprises benefit from sustainable access to modern energy services; -train 30,000 stove builders, craftsmen, vendors and solar technicians Since 2014 with support from the UK Department for International Development (DFID), EnDev is piloting Results Based Financing (RBF) to develop new markets for energy access.

Cloros s.r.l - Italy

Initiative partner

Cloros is an E.S.Co (Energy Service Company) - certified UNI11352 – founded in 2009. Active in Italy and abroad, with a turnover of more than € 6 million, over 200 customers and a staff of 15, the company has firmly established itself as one of the leaders on the market of energy efficiency. Cloros has carried out numerous projects of energy auditing, obtainment of white certificates and consulting for the creation of energy management systems certified ISO50001. From 2011, the company decided to expand its services to include environmental, social and economic sustainability, as well as marketing, implementing major collaborations for the calculation of carbon footprints and water footprints of agricultural and industrial products, events and for the compensation of greenhouse gas with sustainability projects carried out directly in developing countries. Cloros offers partnerships with companies, in particular small and medium enterprises, to identify solutions which increase competitiveness through improving the efficiency of processes and products and, last but not least, to build up new business opportunities through sustainability and internationalization.

Main focus of the initiative is the promotion and distribution of Improved Cooking Stoves (ICS) for the betterment of the nutritional, environmental and economic condition of the most vulnerable households living in Chamanculo C and Xipamanine informal settlements of Maputo (Mozambique). The Improved stoves, certificated by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), are introduced through a local sustainable market in the two informal settlements. Project’ s main strengths are: healthier and more efficient cooking procedures, dramatic reduction of toxic emissions due to a lower consumption of charcoal -therefore reduced biomass consumption, and reduced greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions, and economic savings as well. The project is actualized by means of a multi-stakeholder partnership gathering different sectors: Cloros and CarbonSinkGroup (private), GIZ (Development Agency/Governmental Company), AVSI and Khandlelo (NGOs), Maputo City Council (local authority)

The adopted organizational model  is the most innovative aspect in the implementation of the initiative according to the following main points:

a.multi-stakeholder partnership  among profit, development and research agencies, civil society, specialized companies, and public sector, made possible the full engagement of different actors toward a common goal;

b. matching between supply and demand:  by talking with  the local population in the informal settlements has been possible to know its real needs and so identify fitting solutions  also respondent  to sustainable market criteria;

c. deem the  local community the  main actor of development by  its active  involved in all phases of the  project;

d. wide spread of smart and convenient improved cooking stoves

e. mitigation of climate change effects byprogressive reduction of GHGs emissions  and subsequently issuing of certified carbon credits  according to international standards (Clean Development Mechanism & Gold Standard).


Innovation introduced The organizational model introduced gathers different stakeholders to introduce a new technology in a low-developed country.

Mozambique ranks 178 over 185 countries according to 2014 Human Development Index Report. 80% of energy consumption in Mozambique is provided by biomass consumption (rural areas rates: 95-98%).
In Maputo’s capital city, about 80% of the population live in informal settlements without basic infrastructures.
Almost 95% of households use traditional, low energy-efficiency charcoal cooking stoves.
Multiple negative effects derive from this situation:
a.10% (27 USD) of households monthly earnings is spent oncharcoal (more than 70% of them daily buy a 1 USD charcoal package);
b. negative health effects due to improper cooking procedures, high risk of domestic fire, domestic toxic emissions. According to the World Health Organisation 1,5 million people die every year because of diseases related to cooking emissions;
c.negative effects on environment: high CO2 emissions, biomass consumption and  deforestation (total forestry surface in Mozambique has decreased of 10% between 1990 and 2010).

Context and background Maputo' s location in Mozambique
Map of Chamanculo C The map shows the different kind of informal buildings in Chamanculo C informal settlement of Maputo
Maputo’s informal settlements Mozambique ranks 178 over 185 countries according to 2014 Human Development Index Report. In Maputo capital city, about 80% of the population live in informal settlements without basic infrastructures and services.
Traditional cooking method Almost 95% of households in Maputo use traditional, low energy efficiency charcoal cooking stoves; their usage implies multiple negative effects for nutritional health, environment and household safety.
../file-system/small/pdf ../file-system/small/pdf Baseline survey on local cooking stoves and charcoal market This survey, which was carried out in the District of Chamanculo C of Maputo, aimed to provide a baseline for the implementation of the initiative and is useful to have a clear understanding of the local context. Due to the lack of updated data, the first action was the updating of the District’s map, then it was carried out a sample survey by distributing a questionnaire in order to collect information on the kind of stove and energy used in Chamanculo C.
../file-system/small/pdf ../file-system/small/pdf Fuel Consumption Baseline for traditional charcoal cookstoves in Mozambique Due to the lack of a national standard for clean and efficient biomass cookstoves a fuel consumption baseline was established. This baseline is destinated to be a guideline to identify the improved charcoal cookstoves . The SNV / EnDev alignment of saving 40% of fuel compared to traditional cooking techniques is a basic criteria to define the term «improved». For the elaboration of this baseline, single burner charcoal stoves were selected from local markets or street side vendors.

                                                       Results achieved so far (27/10/2014)
-3.842 improved cooking stoves sold
-2.609 traditional stoves replaced
-50% reduction in charcoal consumption (charcoal saved so far: 140.000 Kg);
-CO2eq emissions reduction up to 60% per family
-Initial investment for the cooking stove: 25 USD regained within two months through monthly savings on charcoal (from 6% up to 10%)
-payment through installment (about 5 USD at delivery, remaining amount through installments): 75% of households pay their stoves in 90 days
-creation of a community fund (generated by improved stoves selling) managed by a local people association (actual fund value 45.000 USD)
-saving in cooking time and improved food quality
 -deforestation cutback due to a more efficient use of charcoal
-project certified by the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC).



../file-system/small/pdf ../file-system/small/pdf Results Results of the initiative

Direct beneficiaries of the initiative

-about 7500 poor households (15.000 individuals) living in Maputo’s informal settlements without basic infrastructures-sewers, streets, health and education services-and low earnings (average monthly earning of a local family of 5 individuals on average, is 200USD); 40% of them run an informal activity. Improved cooking stoves has given to local households the possibility to:
a) reduce charcoal consumption generating savings (from 6% up to 10% of monthly earnings)
b) enhance women’s conditions through healthier food treatment, safer domestic conditions, time saving for other activities.

- local unemployed youth has obtained a stable income through their involvement in promotional activities related to the project and stove selling.

-more than 2.000 individuals involved in the local association that manages the community fund (M’BEU – Association for the Communitarian Development of Chamanculo C).

Traditional cooking stoves replacement Local poor households can now have multiple benefits from the replacement of traditional cooking instruments.
Women: first beneficiaries Women and their children can now live in better domestic conditions, because of reduced domestic emissions due to cooking procedure.

People performing the initiative in the field
1 Project Coordinator
1 Logistic manager
1 Treasures/accountant
10 ICS Promoters
10 ICS Logistic assistant
3 International consultant
76 Chiefs of neighborhood (traditional leaders)
3 Local association
1 Local Authority
1 Governmental authority
(See file attached for details)

Improved Cooking Stoves delivery Promoters gain a commission per each ICS delivered and totally paid by the families. They are responsible for filling the CDM/Gold Standard registration form and for the installments collection.
Improved Cooking Stoves transport All Logistic Assistant transport through a wheelbarrow (unique imaginable carrier in such a slum) both the traditional and the Improved Cooking Stoves from and to the Field store room to and from the family’s house. They work side by side with their associated Promoter.
Promoter in action A promoter responsible for filling the CDM/Gold Standard registration form and for the installments collection.
Promoters team Local unemployed youth has obtained a stable income through their involvement in promotional activities related to the project such as stoveselling.
../file-system/small/docx ../file-system/small/docx Human resources involved and other actors For each resource/actor involved a brief description of its duties is provided.

Difficulty  1: diffusion of a new technology and proper usage of it.

Solution:  local civil society engagement in public meetings and demonstrative tests to explain the initiative.

Difficulty  2: project sustainability (match the creation of a local market with economic resources of local families)

Solution: introduction of financial instruments:
a. double international certification of emission offset by the United Nations Clean Development Mechanism (for compliance carbon market) and Gold Standard (carbon standard, leader in international voluntary carbon market).
Certified GHGs emissions reduction through Improved Cooking Stoves are traded as commodity that can be sold on compliance and voluntary carbon market
b. monthly installments and economic bonus associated to old stoves replacement.

CDM Project https://cdm.unfccc.int/ProgrammeOfActivities/Validation/DB/E6IB5VSYQIRALMN4NV1Z288S68XFZ4/view.html

Testing Improved Cooking Stoves The diffusion of this new technology and its proper usage has been possible through the engagement of local beneficiaries in public meetings and demostrative tests.

                     The project activity has multiple positive impacts on the environment including:
Air quality
The use of ICSs will reduce the amount of charcoal needed for the cooking activities compared with the baseline situation. Reduced fuel usage will have a positive impact on the air quality as less indoor air pollution currently associated with traditional stoves will be emitted. 
Biodiversity and Soil condition
The decrease in charcoal used will discourage the deforestation and thereafter biodiversity loss and improve soil conditions as well.
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
Improved stoves reduce charcoal consumption for cooking and therefore GHGs emissions.
Since the beginning of the project (April 2014) 150.000 kg of charcoal has been saved- equivalent to 900.000 kg of wood necessary to produce charcoal, and to 1.200 tCO2eq (tonnes of CO2-equivalent) emissions.Whole savings estimated at the end of the project are 82.000t of charcoal, equivalent to 500.000t of wood and about 270.000 tCO2eq.

Charcoal market Since the beginning of the project (April 2014) 150.000 kg of charcoal has been saved- equivalent to 900.000 kg of wood necessary to produce charcoal, and to 1.200 tCO2eq (tonnes of CO2 -equivalent) emissions. Whole savings estimated at the end of the project are 82.000t of charcoal, equivalent to 500.000t of wood and about 270.000 tCO2eq.

Sustainability: a three-phases strategy has been planned to enhance a local sustainable market:

First phase: improved cooking stoves, certified by Clean Development Mechanism criteria, are imported because in Mozambique they don’ t exist.
Second phase: components are imported, whereas assembled locally
Third phase: (ongoing): local production of certified improved cooking stoves according to the Clean Development Mechanism criteria.
This process has lower production costs per stove (from 45 USD to 30 USD per stove) and selling price per stove as well (from 20 USD to 15 USD).

Trasferability, Duplicability: the project has been positively evaluated by local authorities and other stakeholders in Mozambique enabling extension of the project from December 2014 in other informal settlements of Maputo (Bairro Jorge Dimitrov, PolanaCanisso).

Cooking Stoves Distribution 1 Peolple attending to the inaugural meeting for ICSs distribution
Cooking Stoves Distribution 2 Maputo’s major David Simango meets the local families and distributes Improved Cooking stoves

                                                    Presentation and dissemination initiatives
-meetings with the community leadership of informal settlements in Maputo, plenary, block or family group meetings and distribution of information material. During the meetings, all the action stages have been presented so that an increasing number of people would have got involved and aware of being the lead actor of the action;
-consultation process with local stakeholders held in 2012 and 2014 has involved more than 400 people with the aim to gather comments and suggestions for the implementation of the project. 
- dedicated on-line blog by CarbonSinkGroup with up-to-date information on implementation steps of the initiative. (Project blog: http://carbonsinkmozambico.blogspot.it/)
- articles on the national and local press reporting the initiative as a valuable example of development aid.

Local authorities meeting Different meetings with local authorities and community leaders were held; lots of questions have been made and answers have been given - equally from the side of the local authorities as from the side of the project implementer.
Local stakeholders meeting The latest meeting with local beneficiaries was held on 27th January. More than 200 persons interested about the project were present.
../file-system/small/pdf ../file-system/small/pdf Press reporting the initiative LiberoQuotidiano.it
../file-system/small/pdf ../file-system/small/pdf Press reporting the initiative Panorama.it
../file-system/small/pdf ../file-system/small/pdf Press reporting the initiative AdnKronos
../file-system/small/pdf ../file-system/small/pdf Press reporting the initiative Wall Street Italia