Protected vegetable cultivation in Turkey is located mainly in the coastal areas of Aegean and Mediterranean regions. Diseases and pests are the most important factors restricting crop production made under protected conditions. Demonstrative activities on integrated pest management (IPM) are initiated in the 1990s in Turkey. Studies were performed to adopt reduced number of pesticide applications by the activities concerning field days and broadcasting. Farmers were encouraged to reduce outcome costs including pesticides and apply environmental friendly practices. Solarization practices have started in 1980s and it has been adopted by farmers through demonstration projects conducted during 2000-2007. Studies were also carried out on the use of natural enemies against various crop pests and pesticides with low side effect on useful insect fauna. To extend the integrated pest control practices in greenhouses, studies are still in progress in Turkey.
Biological Control Research Station, Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Food Agriculture and Livestock - TurkeyLead applicant
Plant Protection Research Station, Bornova / İZMİR - TurkeyInitiative partner
Quarantine Analysis, Biological Efficacy Test for Regulatory purposes
Plant Health Central Research Institute - TurkeyInitiative partner
West Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institute / ANTALYA - TurkeyInitiative partner
Plant Production and protection, Good agricultural practices, Plant Health services, Economic Indicators, Organic farming, Food and Feed Services, Veterinary services, Animal Husbandry, EU and Foreign Relation
Entire control methods for greenhouse grown vegetables are evaluated under the scope of IPM (Integrated pest management). priority is given to cultural methods to grow healthy plants. In case of pest and disease contamination despite cultural measures, control procedures that have minimal effect on human health and environment are to be given to priority. These are physical (solarızatıon), biotechnical and biological control methods. If the pest and disease intensity is still high and could not be prevented despite application of procedures mentioned above, chemical control must be applied to prevent crop loss
Nowadays, protection of human health, environment, ecosystem and biodiversity is being considered as the important elements in agricultural practices applied. Hence, taking into account of agro ecosystem and sustainable systems in agriculture is a must to decide the pest control methods. This could be achieved primarily by employing cultural methods in company with the other alternatives to the pesticides and if necessary, all in a compatible association.
These studies approved the fact on the reduced expenses in IPM applied greenhouses when the application number of pesticide is decreased by the half. Thus, practicing IPM in greenhouses gives chance to the less use of pesticide resulting with environmentally friendly products. In addition, concerning human health, obtaining non-resudal crops have a great importance . It is therefore, through IPM applications, control expenses would be reduced and economic loss would then be compensable
Fundamental researches carried on integrated pest control in Turkey started with cotton in 1970 (Yasarakinci 2009). Several projects were conducted on grapes, olive, cherry, pistachio, apple, hazelnut, citrus, wheat, potato, maize sunflower and cotton. In addition to these crops, research on vegetables and ornamental plants grown under protected conditions was carried out in coordination with universities, Ministry of Agriculture, research institutes and broadcasting organizations. Additionally, the project called ‘A national network assembles for integrated pest management (IPM) in Turkey’ was funded by FAO/UNDP during 1994-1996 and UNIDO and World Bank (that are the MeBr alternatives and phase out projects, 2000-2007). Through this project, technical directions for integrated pest management was constituted and submitted to the use of researchers, farmers, educational and broadcasting staffs (Bulut 1995, Yücel et al. 2002).
The projects further encompassed intensive training activities for greenhouse cultivation and other relevant sectors; training included workshops, meetings with growers and technical staff, field visits, training sessions in the field, domestic and international training activities and radio and TV programs. Overall in horticultural sector,about 1,000 growers and technical personnel were reached and nearly 12,000 growers were visited and directly trained.
Results obtained from trials carried out during the demonstration projects indicated that solarization is very efficient as a control measure for soil disinfestation under Turkish agricultural conditions.
Use of yellow sticky traps, biocontrol agents and bees was increased.
Pesticide appliction numbers were reduced up to 6-11in IPM greenhouses where these numbers were recorded as 14-18 in controlled ones.
1. Farmers - now have minor costs for the pesticides and also their health is more protected.
2. Consumers - because the quantity of pesticides is reduced for 50%
3. Extention services - thanks to trainings the professionists are more prepared.
In order to protect environment and human health, broadcasting of IPM is one of the main goal in agriculture in Turkey. On this viewpoint, sustainable research and training activities are in progress by Governmental support for the growers and consumers.
This project team was constitute from the Plant Protection Research Institute Researchers and extention service personnels of the Ministery in two periods the first one was in between 1995-1999 and the second one was in between 2000-2004. The list of researchers below were involved in IPM projects and they are still in charge.
Coordinator : Dr.Seral YÜCEL (Phytopathology)
Dr.Melike YURTMEN (Virology)
Ali KARATAŞ (Bacteriology)
Uğur EKMEKÇİ (Entomology)
Dr. Adem ÖZARSLANDAN ( Nematology)
Dr. Eda AKSOY (Herbology)
Dr. Mehmet KEÇECİ (Entomology)
Dr. Abullah ÜNLÜ (Phytopathology)
Dr. Tülin KILIÇ (Entomology)
Sabriye OZDEMIR (Virology)
Dr. Nursen ÜSTÜN((Bacteriology)
Dr. Bilge MISIRLIOGLU( Nematology)
Dr. Pervin ERDOGAN (Entomology)
Dr. Aynur KARAHAN (Bacteriology)
Most of the protected cultivation is conducted in the plastic cover type greenhouses that are not properly designed for airing and side height. In such greenhouses pest and diseases enterance are not sufficiently prevented and epidemics occure in high humid and temperatures. These factors should be taken into account in planning of new greenhouses. This infrastructure is the main difficulty we faced over the project years.
Another difficulty was the farmers! They do not have the habit of recording the applications done in their greenhouses. These were considered through farmers educations.
We tried to overcome the problems through the strong collaboration within the institutes, extention service staffs and the growers worked together!
IPM applications are advertised through media to increase consumer demand. Negative effect of overdose peticide and fertilizer use on environment and soil were explained to producers and consumers, as well by the brochures, video films, media news etc.
The first method considered in pest and disease control is the chemical measures since the effect is instant. The farmers usually do not wait for pest to reach to certain population (the economical threshold), besides they unconsciously mix a fungicide with pesticide whey they use protective chemical applications. It is known that such applications negatively effect human health, environment, and natural balance and induce resistance in pest population. On the other hand, detection of pesticide residues over daily amount determined by international organizations in fresh products negatively effect domestic consumption and export. Studies directed to integrated pest and disease control in which conducts to use of less pesticide and alternative control measures, gain importance because of the reasons described above.
Thanks to demonstration studies, brochures, and training activities, understanding the IPM concept was achieved.
Growers were noticed to the positive impact on the yield, the success of solarization application for soil disinfection before planting.
The reason for the large application of solarization in the region relies on the projects supported by Ministry of Agriculture, World Bank (between 1994-1998) and UNIDO and World Bank (that are the MeBr alternatives and phase out projects, 2000-2007).
Consumers started to require derived from IPM products.
Pesticide application numbers were reduced under IPM applied greenhouses.
Growers attention were attracted on not using any pesticide just before harvest.
The concept of IPM has received increased international attention since the Montreal Protocol established phase-out of methyl bromide alternatives. Within the framework of an advanced sustainable agricultural system,IPM is the primary means of responding to consumer demands of high quality products whilw at the same time addressing environmental,safety and socio-economic issues.
Together with IPM, the concept of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) has developed. In general terms,this concept addresses sustainable production from an enviromental and social point of view.
Appropriate follow up from results obtained with projects developed at an earlier stage and direct involvement of growers in the demonstration trials were also important.