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INCIDENCE AND EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SOME VIRUSES CAUSING LEAFROLL AND RUGOSE WOOD DISEASES IN AUTOCHTONOUS GRAPEVINE VARIETIES IN EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN AND SOUTH-EAST ANATOLIA

Place: turkey, Europe
Sustainable management of natural resources Sustainable management of natural resources
Total Budget: € 74,00 | Period: From June 2014 To June 2016

Summary

Two viruses of grapevine, and Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-9 were detected in Eastern Mediterranean (15%) and Southeast Anatolia (9%), important for grape growing areas with 25-50% and 10% incidence, subsequently obtained by PCR amplification were found to be highly similar to GRSPaV and GLRaV-9 registered in GenBank. Both viruses are in Certification program carried out by Ministry of Agriculture in Turkey. GLRaV-9 is transmitted by mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) and GRSPaV does not have any known vector transmission and is mostly transmitted through infected plant material. It has a wide range of variants and GRSPAV-SG1 variant is reported to be in association with vein necrosis (VN) which was symptomatologically reported from Turkey.

It is important to know the incidence of GRSPaV and GLRaV-9 in autochthonous varieties, their genetic diversity and epidemiology in two important grape growing areas in order to have better implementation of certification scheme.

Partnership

National Research Council - Italy

Lead applicant

Pistachio Research Station Directory - Turkey

Initiative partner

RESEARCH AND IMPLEMENTATION BODIES, RESPONSIBILE CERTIFICATION PROGRAMME

KAHRAMANMARAS SUTCU IMAM UNIVERSITY - Turkey

Initiative partner

PLANT PATHOLOGY RESEARCH ON ECONOMICALY IMPORTANT CROPS AND FRUIT TREES AT MEDITERRANEAN BASIN. IT IS AIMED FOR EARLY DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PLANT PATHOGENS, MAINLY VIRUSES AND VIRUS-LIKE DISEASES, DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DETECTION TECHNIQUES AND NATURAL GENETIC RESISTANCE IN PLANTS.

Sanitation from viruses of local grape variety of eastern Mediterranean and southeast Anatolia regions for sustainable development. Saving and promotion of the local variety. The research activities proposed in the Project are addressed to investigate presence, variability and spread of two viruses recently described in Turkish vineyards, which are associated to main grapevine virus diseases (leaf roll and rugose wood), as a model of the pathosystem. Their potential involvement in symptom expression and interaction with innovative machinery was investigated by innovative molecular biology techniques.

-  provide an understanding about the impact of the related virus diseases on yield and quality performance on old authoctonous grapevine cultivars, mostly self-rooted and not contaminated by American rootstocks grafting, used for table and wine production
- the updating of molecular detection tools will surely help the sanitation techniques to be applied to local grapevine germplasm, highly degraded by the widespread presence of mixed infections
- project output will support the improvement of  clean stock certification programs for grapevine in the involved growing areas. As being Turkey a candidate country for entering EU, this bilateral programme will pave the way to interesting perspectives for grapevine nursery industry and wine making technology
- knowledge on epidemiological behaviour of GLRaV9 and GRSPaV (association and spread by mealybugs, selection of molecular variants, etc)  will  help in the prevention of local and long-distance dissemination

Grape is an important crop in a large surface area in turkey. The plat is cultivated from east to west and south to nort; however biotic factors, importantly viruses and virus-like diseases are big issue to improve the cultivation. Certification programme of grapevine  has been seriously carried out since 2006. On the other hand, there are few agents in certification scheme which have not been indetified in plants. This research is important to investigate the missing viruses to diagnose in autochthonous grape cultivars and look for a source for genetic resistance in plants. This will help to improve the grapevine cultivation in Turkey and use the natural sources to improve the resistance against viruses.

Local variety Local grape variety from east Anatolia

The research activities proposed in the Project are addressed to investigate presence, variability and spread of two viruses, GLRaV-9 and GRSPaV, recently described in Turkish vineyards, which are associated to main grapevine virus diseases ( leafroll and rugose wood), as a model of the pathosystem. Their potential involvement in symptom expression and interaction with silencing machinery will be investigated by NGS techniques. Virus isolate characterization will be done from viruliferous mealybug vectors that are able to transmit GLRaV-9 vine to vine. An added value is the investigation on virus status and epidemiology in old local varieties in important growing areas in eastern Mediterranean and Southeast Anatolia regions.

Grape leaves with virus Local variety of grape with virus symptoms
Mealbug on the branch Trasmission of virus by Mealbug

Certification programme of fruit trees and grapevine has been recently activated in Turkey; however some of viruses in grape are still unknown due to lack of research in the area. Two certification viruses and epidemiology aspect will be investigated in autochtonous varieties and correlation will be made in order to understand virus source. On the other hand, epidemiology sr-tudy will help us to develope additonal control strategy. Main beneficaries will be nurseries who must provide certified plant materials to the growers. Growers will be other beneficaries who will have healthy materials and produce qood quality and quantity of productions. 

Researchers from Turkey and Italy who desired to bring the scientific and technical experiences together believed to carry out this collaboration. Five people (2 from turkey and 3 from Italy) are involved in the cooperation. each part has its own manager to organize to manage the activity.

Three groups are involved in research: Prof. Nihal Buzkan (Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Turkey) who is PI of the Turkish side.  Serpil KARADAG (Pistachio Research Station Directory, Turkey) who is responsible for survey organization in the South east part of the country and epidemiology aspects of the viruses. Dr. Angelantonio Minafra (PI from Italian side), Dr. Pierfederico La Notte, Dr. Pasquale Saldarelli (CNR) are responsible some of molecular research.

The main difficulty was to convince the scientific board about the importance of the research topic. That would bring the finacial support which has great importance to have people work from both countries.

I had arranged a visit to partners institute and presented the situtation in grape cultivating area. Both sides have put great effort to convince the financial board to get grant in order to start the research. Moreover, Turkish side has created a team with colleagues from the Ministry of Agriculture to get them directly  involved in research topic.

Grape leaves with virus Local variety from east Anatolia with virus symptom
Grape leaves with virus Local variety of grape, leaf with virus symptom.

The initiative impact was the investigation of two additional pathogens which have detrimental effect on plant life and productivity. The results helped to improve the control strategy and sanitate the plants. Epdemiology aspect is another important issue that prevented the virus dissemination for long distance.

During this experience I created new bilateral collaborations and researcher exchanges in order to share the knowledge in the area and also encouraged me to start other intiatives for sustainable virus resistance in plant materials.

This collaborative work allowed transferring and applying biological and molecular knowledge obtained by the  partners on virus-plant interactions to the control of important virus diseases affecting  production in Turkey. In turn, the data obtained about virus infections in Turkish varieties will help the Italian partner to develop a modeling approach of the sustainable management of plant resistances.

 

This collaborative work  allow transferring and applying biological and molecular knowledge obtained by the  partners on virus-plant interactions to the control of important virus diseases affecting  production in Turkey. In turn, the data obtained about virus infections in Turkish varieties will help the Italian partner to develop a modeling approach of the sustainable management of plant resistances. With the informations we obtained from this collaboration work we tried to transfer to local farmers who had this kind of problems in their fields.  

Also we are preparing some divulgative documents such as scientific articles and will participate to congress and workshops.. We will also organise day for farmers.