In many pepper-growing areas especially in open fields, virus infections have been detected. Some of the viruses causing diseases in pepper are transmitted mechanically by contact, use of infected seeds or air-borne vectors (aphids and thrips) through non-infected areas. Both symptomatological and serological studies showed that virus infections are quite intensive in pepper cultivation of Turkey and it has been also suspected that the major production lost in Karaisalı should be due to virus infections, especially vector-borne ones.
This study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of Potato Y virus in red peppers throughout main pepper growing areas in Kahramanmaraş, Hatay and Gaziantep by innovative molecular biology techniques.
KAHRAMANMARAS SUTCU IMAM UNIVERSITY - TurkeyLead applicant
PLANT PATHOLOGY RESEARCH ON ECONOMICALY IMPORTANT CROPS AND FRUIT TREES AT MEDITERRANEAN BASIN. IT IS AIMED FOR EARLY DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PLANT PATHOGENS, MAINLY VIRUSES AND VIRUS-LIKE DISEASES, DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DETECTION TECHNIQUES AND NATURAL GENETIC RESISTANCE IN PLANTS.
THE FRENCH NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH - FranceInitiative partner
In today’s complex climatic, demographic and energy context, agricultural research must deal with major issues on various scales. Preparing worldwide food availability and security by 2050, reducing greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, and promoting alternative agricultural and forestry practices that can respond to non-reversible climate change are challenges the entire world must face. Some of the many underlying concerns that must be tackled include understanding individual behaviour on a regional or market level; studying the relationships between plant, animal and human health; researching new ways of producing energy and materials from agricultural sources; and limiting overall environmental impacts. To deal with these issues, the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA) produces scientific knowledge and works for economic and social innovation in the areas of food, agriculture and the environment.
University of Kilis Yedi Aralık - TurkeyInitiative partner
Our university is in a position ready to respond to students’ all needs with its material capability. Significant progress has been made to be a competent and highly-qualified institution in terms of its premises, materials and instruments and most importantly teaching staff. Among advantages of our university is availability of high technological opportunities in physical media students are using, easy transportation, and relatively cheaper and easier living conditions in Kilis. In addition, graduates of our university get a high order in being placed in governmental offices upon KPSS, which is another sign of our success
Pathogens have strong negative effects on pepper growth, production and quality of products. Viruses are among the most important pepper pathogens in Turkey and other countries. So the main idea of the research was sanitation of local pepper variety from virus disease by using innovative molecular biology techniques.
During the research PVY isolates have been divided into three main groups: O (vein necrosis), N (systemic mottling) and C(stripe symptoms). Several recombinant isolates have also been characterized, mainly between the N and O groups. Moreover, new isolates have also been reported due to interactions between PVY isolate and host genes. Almost all pepper isolates of PVY belong to the C group. Isolates of PVY infecting pepper in the field were originally divided into three main groups (pathotypes) based on their ability to overcome the recessive resistance genes pvr21 and pvr22 in Capsicum annuum L. Isolates that are unable to overcome these genes and can infect only genotypes lacking them belong to pathotype 0. Isolates that overcome pvr21 belong to pathotype (0, 1), and those which overcome both resistance genes (pvr21 and pvr22) belong to pathotype (0, 1,2). Other main innovative results are: 1) Frequency of potyviruses infecting red pepper in Turkey and their genetic diversity. 2) Capacity of Turkish potyvirus isolates to break down pepper resistance genes available in pepper genetic resources.
Pepper production in Turkey exceeds 1.480.000 tons making this country one of the most important producer in the Mediterranean. Peppers are processed for dried powder use and paste basically in the southern part as well as freshly consumed. Total pepper cultivated area has been reported about 5.784 ha with the production of 13.387 tons. The major portion comes from east Anatolia; however, Cukurova region is known as other very important growing area in open fields. In many pepper-growing areas especially in open fields, virus infections have been detected. Some of the viruses causing diseases in pepper are transmitted mechanically by contact, use of infected seeds or air-borne vectors (aphids and thrips) through non-infected areas. Both symptomatological and serological studies showed that virus infections are quite intensive in pepper cultivation of Turkey and it has been also suspected that the major production lost in Karaisalı should be due to virus infections.
This work allowed transferring and applying biological and molecular knowledge obtained by the French partner on virus-pepper interactions to the control of important virus diseases affecting pepper production in Turkey. The data obtained about virus infections in Turkish pepper varieties helped the French partner to develop a modelling approach of the plant resistances sustainable management.
These models, explore two strategies: (i) defining rules to choose and combine the most appropriate resistance genes for future plant varieties and (ii) defining rules to manage in the most efficient manner the presently-available varieties (by rotations of varieties with different resistance genes over years or in the different fields).
Also tangible results are:
1) Frequency of potyviruses infecting red pepper in Turkey and their genetic diversity.
2) Capacity of Turkish potyvirus isolates to break down pepper resistance genes available in pepper genetic resources.
Researchers will benefit of complementary skills in prospecting and measuring virus epidemics in pepper crops and in studying potyvirus diversity and its impact on the durability of pepper resistances. In addition, the project will benefit from modelling approaches developed by the French partner with the aim of choosing the most efficient strategy of using resistant varieties in a sustainable manner. The Turkish partner will provide access to results about potyvirus epidemics in pepper varieties with different resistance genes that will in turn help validating the modelling approaches developed by the French partner. And at the end the real beneficiaries are the pepper growers.
Five people (2 from turkey and 3 from france) are involved in the research. Turkish partners are the parts of University and French partners have been working in a research institution. One from each side is the manager to carry out both scientific and burocratic issues in order to have better working conditions.
The only difficulty was to find financial support to bring both sides together. the research was granted from non-profit organizations from both sides which have helped us to move between countries in order to carry out research in both conditions. We resolved the financial problems through bilateral agreement between French and Turkish partners.
1) Diversity of the resistance genes and alleles present in the Turkish pepper local varieties.
2) Structure of potyvirus populations in relation to their geographical origin, the variety of the sampled plants and the occurrence of resistance in these plants.
This information is useful for future breeding programmes in Turkey for new resistant pepper varieties and to define optimal strategies of using the presently-available pepper varieties in order to control potyvirus epidemics.
Our collaborations between the different French and Turkish partners resulted in development of pepper varieties more suited to the Turkish and French market in terms of virus resistances.
We participated with the poster "Preliminary results of the distribution and genetic diversity of Potato virus Y in main Turkish pepper growing areas" at the 2011 APS-IPPC Joint Meeting in Hawai. We also published a scientific article "High prevalence of poleroviruses in field-grown pepper in Turkey and Tunisia" in Springer-Verlag Wien 2012. We also published a scientific abstract for the International journal of the American phitopathological Society - Phitopatology.