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History of Introduction and Dissemination of olive growing in Morocco

Titre
History of Introduction and Dissemination of olive growing in Morocco
Résumé
In Morocco, only one variety of olive-tree dominates in all the areas of the country, representing more than 90% of the cultivated olive-trees. This single situation pushes custom to wonder about the effect of historical, political, economic and technical factors, which are responsible of the selective propagation in all the areas of the country of only one variety ' Picholine Marocaine '. To contribute to answer this question, we propose a reconstitution of olive diffusion in Morocco in time and space based on several indices, and resection of dated available in the collections of new sources of the history of Morocco, testimony’s of many relations of Arab geographers, Europeans travellers and old charts. The first introduction of the cultivated olive-tree in Morocco is discussed according to two postulates: the first stipulates its introduction by the oases starting from the East of the Mediterranean via Egypt. While the second postulate stipulates that the cultivated olive’s tree was introduced by sea starting from the east of the Mediterranean Sea or from the Betique (Spain). Its first diffusion was attested in the Tingitane (Morocco) area from the first to the third century around Volubilis, Lixus and Tinjis. The restitution of the diffusion of the olive-tree in the area of Fes, Marrakech and Tlemcen is proposed starting from Arab’s texts of XIth to the XVIIth century. Its extension in the oases of Souss and Tafilalt appears to be late at the XVIIth century, during the Alaoui’s reign, which seems to have supported it following the decline of the sugar cane trade. Contrary to Tunisia, diffusion of the olive-tree in Morocco was later, and its extension was very slow. This diffusion is discussed regarding to the context of availability of the argan oil and the competition of the olive oil with other seed oils. The rates of the annual plantations show that the intensive diffusion of the olive-tree is very recent (XXth century). It is synchronous with the period of the protectorate and of the independence. It coincides with the development of the technical propagation in nursery, the creation of new irrigated perimeters and the mechanization of the oil mills. It is the result of olive-growing policy initially during protectorate and since independence within the framework of the Agricultural Code of the Investments of 1967. Then operation APO was refitted to support the creation of orchard by the free supply of olive seedlings to the farmers after the King speech on Friday 3th october1986. Since 1998, the rates of plantations were accelerated; one Olive-growing National Plane (PNO) was implemented in order to reach one million Ha of olive-tree by 2010.
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Année
2013
Publié en
Options Méditerranéennes : Série A. Séminaires Méditerranéens
20/01/14 - Introduit par: Moukhli Abdelmajid
Quantitative & qualitative enhancement of crop products
Thème principal: Quantitative & qualitative enhancement of crop products
Sous-catégorie Pre-harvesting