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Effects of nitrogen supply on growth, yield and yield components of safflower and sunflower

Titre
Effects of nitrogen supply on growth, yield and yield components of safflower and sunflower
Résumé
Abstract Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) represents an important oil crop internationally and may have a certain production potential under low input conditions, particularly in organic farming systems, where the putatively low nutrient requirement would be an advantage. However, little is known about the nutrient requirements of safflower. This study was undertaken to determine the growth and yield response of safflower as compared to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under different N supplies. Safflower and sunflower plants were grown in Mitscherlich pots containing equal volumes of sand, nutrient-poor limed soil, and perlite. Nitrogen supply was the same for both species (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g per pot) in the first year, but was raised for sunflower (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 g per pot) in the second. Increased N supply enhanced plant growth and yield for both species. Growth and yield of safflower increased up to 1.0 g pot−1, while the optimum for sunflower was 2.0 g pot−1. Safflower out-yielded sunflower at low N supply, while at high N level the opposite occurred. Functional analysis according to Michaelis–Menten revealed that – in terms of yield formation – safflower is superior to sunflower under N-limited conditions. Safflower is generally more efficient than sunflower in concentrating N in their shoots. N concentration in the photosynthetically active youngest mature blade of both species exhibited the same functional relationship with the N supply, but safflower required a much lower leaf N concentration to produce optimal yield as compared to sunflower, indicating the higher efficiency of the former in terms of NUE. Yield components analysis revealed that in safflower, yield is tightly correlated with the number of capitula per plant and the mass per achene, both being strongly correlated, too. On the contrary, sunflower yield was merely determined by the number of achenes per capitulum, followed by the mass per achene. Path coefficient analysis showed that in safflower, the direct effects of the achene and leaf N content as well as the leaf dry matter on oil yield are small, and mediated principally via indirect effects on the number of achenes per capitulum, while for sunflower the number of achenes per capitulum exerts a strong direct effect.
Plus
Année
2008
Publié en
Plant and Soil, 306, (1-2), pp 167-180
28/09/13 - Introduit par: Ruba Shawqi Abuamsha
Quantitative & qualitative enhancement of crop products
Thème principal: Quantitative & qualitative enhancement of crop products
Sous-catégorie Post-harvesting